Ford Pinto/Mustang/Ranger 4-Cylinder “Lima” Engine

Ford Pinto/Mustang/Ranger 4-Cylinder “Lima” Engine

 

These engines are commonly referred to as either the Lima or simply the 2.0/2.3/2.5 OHC (Overhead Cam) engines. They started life based on the German designed 2.0 EAO sport motors that were first introduced to this country in the Mercury Capri’s from the early 1970’s. They share nothing with the 2.3 – 2.5 liter HSC motors that were offered in the passenger car line from 1984 – 1991.

The 2.3 first debuted in the 1974 Pinto using a progressive 2bbl Weber/Holley carburetor and a points distributor. In 1975 they were upgraded to a Duraspark ignition system. They remained unchanged until about 1981 when the intake ports were changed from an oval to a ‘D’ shape (flat floor). 

The 2.0/2.3 liter versions that were offered in Rangers starting in 1983 used a different head having four evenly spaced round holes of equal size. A 2.0 liter 1bbl carbureted version was offered in Rangers from 1983 – 1985, and in 1987 – 1988 with a 2bbl carburetor in some parts of the US, Canada and Mexico. Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) was added to the engines in 1985. In 1989 the 2.3 was changed to a DIS (Distributorless Ignition System) ignition utilizing a new 8-plug head (Two plugs per cylinder). This head had larger evenly spaced D-shaped intake ports and was used until the end of production of the 2.5 in 2001. 

The 2.5 liter version was only offered from 1998 To 2001, when the engine was replaced by a 2.3 liter DOHC Duratec based engine. The 2.5 was a stroked (by 7 mm) version of the 2.3 OHC Ford Ranger engine. It also used higher-flow cylinder heads for better intake and combustion. It was replaced in 2001 by the Mazda-derived Duratec 23.

In 1979 – 1981 a high compression draw thru carbureted turbo version of the 2.3 was offered. In 1983 – 1988 a lower compression EFI turbo version was offered in T-birds, Cougars, Mustang SVOs and Merkur XR4Ti’s (through 1989).

Some of the changes to the motor over the years were:

  • Rear main seal changed from a two piece to a one piece design in 1986

  • Roller cams were installed from 1989 on in Rangers and 1991 on in Mustangs

  • Crankshaft main journal sizes were reduced starting in 1988

  • CPS (Cam Position Sensor) was added starting in 1995 (1994 in California).
    At this time Ford changed to a 104-pin computer (it was a 60-pin) and moved the DIS functions into the computer, previously the DIS system had a TFI module as a separate unit mounted on the front of the intake manifold.

2.0 / 2.3 / 2.5

Specifications

2.0L
(1983 – 1988)

Displacement 122 CID
Type Single Over Head
Cam
Bore x Stroke 3.52 x 3.13
inches
Compression Ratio 9.0:1
Fuel System Carburetor
Fuel Pressure 5 – 7 psi
Horsepower
73hp @ 4000 RPM (1983 –
1986)
80hp @ 4200 RPM (1987 –
1988)
Torque
107 @ 2400 RPM (1983 –
1986)
106 @ 2600 RPM (1987 –
1988)
Oil Pressure 40 – 60 PSI @
2000 RPM

Tune
Up

Spark Plug AWSF-52C
Spark Plug Gap 0.044 inch
Ignition Timing 6 degrees BTDC (1984 is
8 deg.)
Firing Order 1-3-4-2
Distributor
Rotation
Clockwise

Capacities

Oil Capacity With
Filter Change
5 quarts
Cooling System 6.5 quarts

Torque
Specifications

Cylinder Head Torque in 2 steps [1st
(50 – 60 ft-lbs), 2nd (80 – 90 ft-lbs)]
Main Bearing Bolts Torque in 2 steps [1st
(50 – 60 ft-lbs), 2nd (80 – 90 ft-lbs)]
Rod Bearing Bolts Torque in 2 steps [1st (25
– 30 ft-lbs), 2nd (30 – 36 ft-lbs)]
Crankshaft Pulley Bolts 100 – 120 ft-lbs
Flywheel to Crankshaft
Bolts
56 – 64 ft-lbs
Intake Manifold Torque in 2 steps [1st
(5 – 7 ft-lbs), 2nd (14 – 21 ft-lbs)]
Exhaust Manifold Torque in 2 steps [1st
(5 – 7 ft-lbs), 2nd (16 – 23 ft-lbs)]

2.3L
(1989 – 1997)

Displacement 140 CID
Type Single Over Head
Cam
Bore x Stroke 3.780 x 3.126
inches
Compression Ratio
9.0:1 (1983 – 1988)
9.2:1 (1990 – 1993)
9.4:1 (1994 – 1997)
Fuel System
Carburetor (1983 –
1984)
Multipot Fuel Injection
(MFI) (1985 – 1997)
Fuel Pressure
5 – 7 psi (1983 – 1984)
30 – 40 psi (1985 – 1997)
Horsepower
79hp @ 3800 RPM (1983 – 1985) Manual
82hp @ 4200 RPM (1983 – 1985) Auto
90hp @ 4000 RPM (1986 –
1988)
100hp @ 4600 RPM (1989
– 1995)
112hp @ 4800 RPM (1996
– 1997)
Torque
124 @ 2200 RPM (1983 – 1985) Manual
126 @ 2200 RPM (1983 – 1985) Auto
130 @ 1800 RPM (1986 – 1988)
133 @ 2600 RPM (1989 – 1995)
135 @ 2400 RPM (1996 – 1997)
Oil Pressure 40 – 60 psi @ 2000 RPM

Tune
Up

Spark Plug
AWSF-44C (1984 – 1990)
AWSR-32PP (1993 – 1995)
AWSR-32F (1996 – 1997)
Spark Plug Gap 0.044
Ignition Timing 10 degrees BTDC
Firing Order 1-3-4-2
Distributor
Rotation
Clockwise

Capacities

Oil Capacity With
Filter Change
5 Quarts
Cooling System
(Quarts)
W/AC- 7.2 /  W/O AC 6.5

Torque
Specifications

Cylinder Head
Torque in 2 steps [1st (50 – 60 ft-lbs), 2nd (80 – 90 ft-lbs)] (1989 – 1995)
51 ft-lbs (1996 – 1997)
Main Bearing Bolts Torque in 2 steps [1st (50 – 60 ft-lbs), 2nd (80 – 90 ft-lbs)]
Rod Bearing Bolts Torque in 2 steps [1st (25 – 30 ft-lbs), 2nd (30 – 36 ft-lbs)]
Crankshaft Pulley Bolts 100 – 120 ft-lbs
Flywheel to Crankshaft
Bolts
56 – 64 ft-lbs
Intake Manifold Torque in 2 steps [1st (5 – 7 ft-lbs), 2nd (14 – 21 ft-lbs)]
Exhaust Manifold Torque in 2 steps [1st (5 – 7 ft-lbs), 2nd (16 – 23 ft-lbs)]

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